Depending on your frame of reference, DevOps will celebrate it’s ninth or 10th anniversary this year. In 2016, RightScale’s “State of the Cloud Report” estimated that 70 percent of SMBs were adopting DevOps methods. Every indication is that percentage has increased since then. As DevOps prepares for its second decade of existence, it might be worth a stroll down memory lane to revisit the origins of DevOps methods—and even the term itself.
Pre-2007: A Perfect Storm of Events
Prior to 2007, a series of circumstances came together that would eventually give birth to what we know today as DevOps.
“Lean manufacturing” was already well-established as a set of best practices for manufacturing. Often branded as the “Toyota Manufacturing Method,” lean manufacturing strives for process optimization across the manufacturing floor. (Sidebar: Toyota leaders were originally inspired by the ingenious assembly line methods introduced by Ford Motor Company.) “Continuous improvement” is the mantra for lean manufacturing and practitioners continually evaluate ways to:
- Keep inventory at a minimum. Lean manufacturing means minimal inventory on hand: raw materials (materials used to produce goods) and finished inventory (completed products waiting to be assigned to an order and/or shipped).
- Minimize the queue of orders. Ideally, orders received should move immediately into fulfillment mode. A key metric of lean manufacturing will always be “order to ship” time.
- Maximize efficiency in the manufacturing process. Process re-engineering and improved automation will marry into a goal to produce goods as quickly as possible. Each station of operation along the way (cut, weld, assemble, test, etc.) is evaluated for inefficiencies.
In IT, traditional waterfall methods of application development were already giving way to rapid, iterative methods such as agile. “Speed” was the battle cry, even if quality output was occasionally compromised in the pursuit of rapid development and deployment. Similarly, on the operations and infrastructure side of IT, Cloud Computing and, in particular, infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) were coming into their own as mature service offerings.
Finally, a fledgling set of tools classified as “continuous integration (CI)” tools began to emerge. The notion of CI tools was birthed and branded by Grady Brooch back in 1991 in his Brooch Method.
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A Definition of DevOps for the Masses
2007-2008: A Frustrated Belgian
Belgian consultant, project manager and agile practitioner Patrick Debois took on an assignment with a Belgian government ministry to help with data center migrations. In particular, his role was in certification/readiness testing. His duties required him to straddle activities and relationships between the application development teams and the operations teams (server, database network). His experiences—and frustrations over the walls of separation and lack of cohesion between application methods and infrastructure methods—planted seeds of discontent for Debois. His desire for a better way would soon lead him to action.
In 2008, at the Agile Conference in Toronto, Andrew Schafer posted an offer to moderate an ad hoc “Birds of a Feather” meeting to discuss the topic of “Agile Infrastructure.” Only one person showed up to discuss the topic: Patrick Debois. Their discussions and sharing of ideas with others advanced the concept of “agile systems administration.” In that same year, Debois and Shafer formed an Agile Systems Administrator group on Google, with limited success.
2009: The Case for Dev and Ops Cooperation
At the O’Reilly Velocity Conference, two Flickr employees—John Allspaw, senior vice president of technical operations, and Paul Hammond, director of engineering—gave a now-famous presentation titled, “10+ Deploys per Day: Dev and Ops Cooperation at Flickr.” The presentation had a dramatic flair to it, as Allspaw and Hammond would role-play the contentious interplay between representatives of Development and Operations during a typical software deployment, along with all the finger-pointing/blame that goes on, such as, “It’s not my code, it’s your machines!” Their presentation made the case that the only rational way forward is for application development and operations activities to be seamless, transparent and fully integrated. Over time, this presentation has reached legendary status, and is historically viewed as the seminal moment in time for that called out to the IT industry for methods that we now know as DevOps.
Unable to attend in person, Debois watched the Allspaw/Hammond presentation by video stream. He was inspired, and—at the prompting of others through social media—formed his own conference called Devopsdays in Ghent, Belgium. By this point in time, the term “DevOps” had officially landed in the history books.
2010: DevOps in the United States
With a growing constituency, a Devopsdays conference is held for the first time in the United States in Mountain View, California, on the heels of the Velocity annual conference. Fast forward to 2018: There are more than 30 Devopsdays conferences already scheduled for 2018, including dozens across the United States.
2013: ‘The Phoenix Project’
For many of us, another noteworthy moment in the history of DevOps was the publishing of the book, “The Phoenix Project,” written by Gene Kim, Kevin Behr and George Spafford. This fictional novel tells the story of an IT manager thrust into a seemingly hopeless situation, as he’s charged with salvaging a mission-critical ecommerce development project that’s gone off the rails. His mysterious mentor, a board member steeped in the disciplines of lean manufacturing, guides the main character into new ways of thinking about IT and application development, introducing the concept of DevOps along the way.
(Sidebar: The Phoenix Project helped inspire us to write “Outsource or Else!” a similar business fable in which a VP of Software uses DevOps when outsourcing development of a major new product.)
DevOps for the Future
It’s reasonable to describe DevOps as a journey, or perhaps an aspiration, rather than defined destination. DevOps, like lean manufacturing, seeks continuous improvement, seeking higher output, greater efficiencies and even continuous deployment. Automated tools that support DevOps continue to evolve.
Much has been accomplished since the inception of DevOps in the last decade and we expect to see even more in 2018 and beyond.